B. Dole is the self-proclaimed
President of the Republic of Hawai'i, inaugurated July
4, 1894, under a constitution that was also declared law
by proclamation. Dole's supporters are businessmen,
primarily American by birth, who have long pressed for
annexation, the group known as the Committee of Safety,
who had overthrown the Hawaiian Constitutional Monarchy
in 1893 and set up a provisional government.
the last queen of Hawai'i, and other supporters,
have visited Washington to request help to reinstate the
monarchy. One or more petitions with more than
20,000 signatures (1) has been
sent to the U.S. Congress opposing annexation, and the
Republic of Hawai'i has been petitioned to put the
annexation question to a public vote.
Nevertheless, an annexation
treaty (not the first) has been sent to the U.S. Senate.
DC - 1898:
McKinley is President of the United
States, elected in 1896 by the largest margin of popular
votes in more than 20 years. He favors US expansion
and has submitted the Treaty of Annexation to the US Senate.
Because of concerns surrounding
the Cuban war for independence, the US declares war on
Spain in April, and the war will be quickly concluded
in less than four months. The US will press for
acquisition of Spain's colonies (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam
and the Philippines) as a condition of peace. The
plan to cede the Pacific territories increases the strategic
value of the Hawaiian islands, especially control over
Treaty (1875) and Supplementary
Convention (1884) between the United States of America
and the Hawaiian Kingdom (covering trade and use of Pearl
Harbor by the US) provides additional background on Hawaii's
relationship with the United States.
In addition to the sources
and references highlighted here, Chapter Seven of Shoal
of Time by Gavan Daws provides insight and perspective.
Titled "Aloha Oe", this chapter covers the period
from 1887, the "Bayonet Constitution", to 1900, when Hawai'i
was made a territory of the United States under The Organic
The Kapi'olani Community
College Library maintains a collection of political
cartoons (Circa 1875-1905) which are an excellent
glimpse into the events as viewed by the public and by
those trying to influence public opinion. Another
excellent resource is Denounce
despite successive denials and postponements,
has been merely a question of time.
[...] the delay of four years having
abundantly sufficed to establish the right and
the ability of the Republic of Hawaii to enter,
as a sovereign contractant, upon a conventional
union with the United States ... Under such
circumstances annexation is not a change.
It is a consummation."
from Shoal of Time, p. 286
points should be made clear here. First,
history records no event in which the Hawaiians
were given the opportunity to determine whether
or not to become annexed to the United States.
[...] Second, the McKinley administration,
in its fever to annex Hawaii ignored the U.S.
Constitutional requirement of 2/3 Senate consent.
Thus, this 'Treaty of Annexation' was never adopted
by the U.S. in accordance with its own Constitutional
so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed
to having the eagle put its talons on any other
Twain (about the Philippines)
understand how and why I pledge my allegiance
to Hawaii only and not to the United States, you
will need to know the history of Hawaii, particularly
that part dealing with the 'annexation' of Hawaii
to the United States."
of Annexation completed June 16, 1897;
ratified by the Senate of the Republic of Hawai'i
in September; never ratified by the U.S. Senate
because the required two-thirds majority was
believed lacking and therefore a vote was never
Protest to the Treaty of Annexation,
presented by Lili'uokalani in Washington D.C.,
June 17, 1897.
Resolution to Provide for Annexing the
Hawaiian Islands to the United States. Resolution
No. 55, known as the "Newlands Resolution,"
2nd Session, 55th Congress, July 7, 1898.
Timeline - Key people and events leading
to annexation of Hawai'i by the U.S.
A series of articles by Jim Zwick, who inspired
my research into the Imperialist Movement in
the U.S. and the connection to the annexation
of Hawai'i following the treaty with Spain.
(1) the probable
existence of petitions with at least 29,000 signatures
was documented in The
Overthrow of the Monarchy Spirit of Aloha,
May 1994. Subsequently, documents evidencing more
than 21,000 signatures were found and have been displayed
at the Bishop Museum, the state capitol and other
locations. These signatures were obtained through
the efforts of Kui Aloha 'Aina. There are reportedly
other petitions that would bring the total to more
than the 29,000 first estimated, though there might
be duplication of names among the different petitions.
The challenge here is that very few people talked
about any of this after the annexation due to fear.
Descendants of those who led the petition drive have
been surprised to learn of the connection because
"it just wasn't talked about". Sources:
KGMB Historic Petitions on Display; and other
TV news reports at the time the documents were located
and put on display. More on Annexation
Protest Past and Present.